What are biofuels?

International Energy Agency (2011). Technology Roadmap Biofuels for Transport.View resource

Advanced Biofuels

European Climate Foundation (2014). Wasted, Europe’s untapped resources. (Reference 1 in infographic) View resource

European Commission (2013). EU Energy, transport and GHG emissions trends to 2050 – Reference Scenario 2013; Capros P et al. View resource

European Commission (2006). Biofuels in the European Union. A vision for 2030 and beyond. View resource

Seadi T, Owen N, Hellstrom H, Kang H (2013). Source separation of MSW. IEA Bioenergy. (Reference 4 in infographic) View resource

Searle S & Malins C (2013). Availability of cellulosic residues and wastes in the EU. International Council on Clean Transportation Whitepaper. (Reference 5 in infographic) View resource

Biofuels Digest (2014). Italy sets first advanced biofuel mandate in Europe. View resource

European Climate Foundation (2014). Wasted, Europe’s untapped resources. View resource

Advanced Biofuels – More information fact sheet View resource

International Energy Agency (2013). Production costs of alternative transportation fuels. View resource

Stephen J D, Mabee W E, Saddler J N (2012). Will second-generation bioethanol be able to compete with first generation ethanol? Opportunities for cost reduction. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref 6:159-176

Bentsen N S, Thorsen B J, Felby C (2009). Energy, land and feed balances of converting winter wheat to ethanol. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining  3:521-533.

Morrow W R, Griffin W M, Matthews H S (2006). Modeling Switchgrass Derived Cellulosic Ethanol Distribution in the United States, Envi. Sci. Techn. 40  2877–2886.

Smeets E M, Junginger E, Faaij A (2005). “Supportive Study for the OECD on Alternative Developments in Biofuel”, report for the OECD Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Paris. View resource

Larsen J, Petersen M Ø, Thirup L, Li H W, Iversen F K (2008). The IBUS Process – Lignocellulosic Bioethanol Close to a Commercial Reality. Chem. Eng. Techn.31 765-77

D. Humbird et al. (2011). Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover (2011) National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-47764.

International Energy Agency (2011). Technology Roadmap – Biofuels for Transport. View resource

Cost Competitiveness

International Energy Agency (2013). Production costs of alternative transportation fuels. View resource

Stephen J D, Mabee W E, Saddler J N (2012). Will second-generation bioethanol be able to compete with first generation ethanol? Opportunities for cost reduction. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref 6:159-176.

Cost Competitiveness – More information fact sheet View resource

Møller F, Slentø E, Frederiksen P (2014). Integrated well-to-wheel assessment of biofuels combining energy and emission LCA and welfare economic Cost Benefit Analysis. Biomass & Bioenergy 60, 41-49.

Langholtz M, Eaton L, Turhollow A, Hilliard M (2014). 2013 feedstock supply and price projections and sensitivity analysis Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. 8 594–607. (Reference 12 in infographic)

International Energy Agency (2014). Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 light road passenger sector data. View resource

International Energy Agency (2011). Technology Roadmap – Biofuels for Transport. View resource

Element Energy (2013) The Role of Biofuels Beyond 2020 View resource

Chum H, Faaij A, Moreira J, (CLA’s), Berndes G; Dhamija P; Dong H; Gabrielle B X; Goss E, Alison M; Lucht W; Mapako M; Masera Cerutti O; McIntyre T C; Minowa T; Pingoud K, Bain R; Chiang R; Dawe D; Heath G; Junginger M; Patel M; Yang J C.; Warner E, Chapter 2, Bioenergy. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs Madruga R, Sokona Y et al. (eds.) (2011) The IPCC Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation, Cambridge University Press, New York, ISBN 978-1-107-60710-12011. Pp. 209-332.

European Climate Foundation (2014). Wasted, Europe’s untapped resources. View resource

Energy security

European Commission (2014). In-depth study of European Energy Security. (Reference 17 in infographic & reference 19) View resource

International Energy Agency. Statistics. (Reference 18 in infographic) View resource

European Commission (2013). EU Energy, Transport And GHG Emissions Trends To 2050, Reference Scenario 2013. View resource

Reuters (2014). Brent falls below $69 as price rout rolls on. View resource

Eurostat. Imports and exports of renewables. View resource

European Commission (2014). Energy security communication. View resource

Environment News Service (2014). World’s First Refinery Turning Farm Waste to Bioethanol Opens. View resource

E4Tech (2013). A harmonised Auto-Fuel biofuel roadmap for the EU to 2030. View resource

Niclas S.B and Claus F (2010). “Technical potentials of biomass for energy services from current agriculture and forestry in selected countries in Europe, The Americas and Asia”, Forest and Landscape working papers, Faculty of Life Sciences – University of Copenhagen, 55/2010.

European Climate Foundation (2014). Wasted, Europe’s untapped resources. View resource

de Wit M, Lesschen J P, Londo M, Faaij A (2014). Greenhouse gas mitigation effects of integrating biomass production into European Agriculture. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Volume 8, Issue 3, May/June 2014, Pp. 374–390.

Energy Security – More information fact sheet View resource

Fischer G, Prieler S, van Velthuizen H, Berndes G, Faaij A, Londo M, de Wit M (2010). Biofuel production potentials in Europe: Sustainable use of cultivated land and pastures, Part II: Land use scenarios, Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 34, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 173-187.

Land And Food – Availability And Price

Food and Agriculture Organisation (2008). Soaring food prices: facts, perspectives, impacts and actions required. View resource

Ecofys (2012). Renewable energy progress and biofuels sustainability. View resource

Baffes J and Haniotis T (2010). “Placing the 2006/08 Commodity Price Boom into Perspective”, report for the World Bank Development Prospects Group. View resource

Rosillo-Calle F and Johnson F (2010). Food versus Fuel. An informed introduction. Zed Books. London

Committee on World Food Security (2013). Biofuels and food security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition. View resource

Hamelinck C (2013). Biofuels and food security. Risks and opportunities. Ecofys. August 2013. Project number: BIENL13469.View resource

Land and Food – More information fact sheet 1 View resource

Hamelinck C (2013). Biofuels and food security. Risks and opportunities. Ecofys. August 2013. Project number: BIENL13469.View resource

Baffes J and Dennis A (2013). Long term drivers of food prices. World Bank. View resource

World Health Organisation (2014). Food security definition. View resource

RSB (2014). Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials. View resource

Hamelinck C (2013). Biofuels and food security. Risks and opportunities. Ecofys. August 2013. Project number: BIENL13469. (Reference 37 in infographic) View resource

Overseas Development Institute (2014). Biofuels and local food security. (Reference 38 in infographic) View resource

Food and Agriculture Organisation (2010). The BEFS Analysis for Tanzania. Rome. View resource (accessed September 2014)

Cotula L and Leonard R (Eds) (2010). Alternatives to land acquisitions: Agricultural investment and collaborative business models. IIED. UK. Pp. 143

Lynd L and Woods J (2011).  A new hope for Africa. NATURE , Vol 474, 23 June 2011. Pages 20-21.

Diaz-Chavez R (2010). The Role of Biofuels in promoting rural development. In: Rosillo-Calle F and Johnson F (eds). Food versus Fuel. An informed introduction. Zed Books. London.

Diaz-Chavez R A, Mutimba S, Watson H, Rodriguez-Sanchez S & Nguer M (2010). Mapping food and bioenergy in Africa. A report prepared on behalf of FARA (Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa), Ghana.

International Energy Agency (2011). IEA Biofuels Roadmap. View resource

Fritz S, See L and Valin H (2013). Current issues and uncertainties in estimating global land availability for biofuel production. Biofuels Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013.

Watson H and Diaz-Chavez R (2011). An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks. Interface Focus April 6, 2011 1:263-270.

European Commission (2009). Renewable Energy Directive. View resource

European Commission (2014). Biofuels sustainability schemes. View resource

Food and Agricultural Organisation (2009). How to feed the world in 2050. View resource

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014). Chapter 11 of the 5th Assessment report WG3. View resource

Turkenburg W, Arent D, Bertani R, Faaij A, Hand M, Kraft D, Krewitt W, Larson E, Lempp P, Lund J, Mehos M, Merrigan T, Mitchell C, Moreira J, Sinke W, Sonntag-O’Brein V, Taylor R, Tresher B, van Sark W, Usher E (2011). Global Energy Assessment – Knowledge Module 11: Renewable Energy, Pp. 230.

Smeets E, Faaij A, Lewandowski I, Turkenburg W (2007). A quick scan of global bio-energy potentials to 2050. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Volume 33, Issue 1, February 2007, Pages 56-106.

Creutzig F, Ravindranath N H, Berndes G, Bolwig S, Bright R, Cherubini F, Chum H, Corbera E, Delucchi M, Faaij A, Fargione J, Haberl H, Heath G, Lucon O, Plevin R, Pop Ap, Robledo-Abad C, Rose S, Smith P, Stromman A, Suh S, Masera O (2014). Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment Article first published online: 4 July 2014, DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12205 (Global Change Biology – Bioenergy).

Land and Food – More information fact sheet 2 View resource

Turkenburg W, Arent D, Bertani R, Faaij A, Hand M, Kraft D, Krewitt W, Larson E, Lempp P, Lund J, Mehos M, Merrigan T, Mitchell C, Moreira J, Sinke W, Sonntag-O’Brein V, Taylor R, Tresher B, van Sark W, Usher E (2011). Global Energy Assessment – Knowledge Module 11: Renewable Energy, Pp. 230.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014). Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation View resource

Smeets E, Faaij A, Lewandowski I, Turkenburg W (2007). A quick scan of global bio-energy potentials to 2050. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Volume 33, Issue 1, February 2007, Pages 56-106.

Dornburg V, van Vuuren D, van de Ven G, Langeveld H, Meeusen M, Banse M, van Oorschot M, Ros J, van den Born G J, Aiking H, Londo M, Mozaffarian H, Verweij P, Lysen E, Faaij A (2010). Bioenergy Revisited: Key Factors in Global Potentials of Bioenergy, Energy & Environmental Science, February 2010, 3, Pages 258–267.

Creutzig F, Ravindranath N H, Berndes G, Bolwig S, Bright R, Cherubini F, Chum H, Corbera E, Delucchi M, Faaij A, Fargione J, Haberl H, Heath G, Lucon O, Plevin R, Pop Ap, Robledo-Abad C, Rose S, Smith P, Stromman A, Suh S, Masera O (2014). Bioenergy and climate change mitigation: an assessment Article first published online: 4 July 2014, DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12205 (Global Change Biology – Bioenergy).

Hoffman L A and Baker A (2011). Estimating the Substitution of Distillers’ Grains for Corn and Soybean Meal in the U.S. Feed Complex. A report from Economic Research Service.

Wisner R (2011). Estimated U.S. Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles, Production and Use, Iowa State University.

Ernst & Young LLC (2011). Biofuels and Indirect Land Use Change—the case for mitigation. View resource

Searchinger T et al. (2008). Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land Use Change, Science 319:1238-1240.

Tyner et al. (2010). Land Use Changes and Consequent CO2 Emissions due to US Corn Ethanol Production: A Comprehensive Analysis.

Laborde (2011). Assessing the Land Use Change Consequences of European Biofuel Policies, Final Report, October 2011, IFPRI.

The International Council on Clean Transportation (2012). A model-based quantitative assessment of the carbon benefits of introducing iLUC factors in the European Renewable Energy Directive; Washington DC View resource

Joint Research Centre (2011). Critical issues in estimating ILUC emissions – Outcomes of an expert consultation 9-10 November 2010, Ispra (Italy); Marelli L, Mulligan D, Edwards R; Ispra. View resource

International Food Policy Research Institute, EC Joint Research Centre – Institute for Energy and Transport (2014). Progress in estimates of ILUC with MIRAGE model; Laborde D, Padella M, Edwards R, Marelli L; Report EUR 26106 EN; Luxembourg. View resource

Ernst & Young LLC (2011). Biofuels and Indirect Land Use Change—the case for mitigation. View resource

Fritsche U and Wiegmann K (2011). Indirect Land Use Change and Biofuels; prepared for the EP Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety; IP/A/ENVI/ST/2010-15; Brussels. View resource

Wicke B et al. (2015). ILUC Prevention Strategies for Sustainable Biofuels – Synthesis report from the ILUC Prevention project; Utrecht University; Utrecht. View resource

European Commission (2009). Renewable Energy Directive. View resource

European Commission (2014). Biofuels sustainability schemes. View resource

Land and Food – More information fact sheet 3 View resource

Ahlgren S and Di Lucia L (2014). Indirect land use changes of biofuel production – a review of modelling efforts and policy developments in the European Union; in: Biotechnology for Biofuels vol. 7:35. View resource

International Energy Agency (2012). Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 – Pathways to a Clean Energy System; Paris.

Zilberman D, Hochman G, Rajagopal D, Sexton S, and Timilsina G (2013). The Impact of Biofuels on Commodity Food Prices: Assessment of Findings.  American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 95, pp. 275-281. (Reference 67 in infographic)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

International Energy Agency (2011). Technology Roadmap – Biofuels for Transport. View resource

European Commission (2014). A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030; Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions; COM (2014) 15 final. View resource

Joint Research Centre, EUCAR, CONCAWE (2014). Well-to-Wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context; WELL-to-WHEELS Report Version 4a; Edwards R et al.; Luxembourg. View resource

Ecofys (2012). Renewable energy progress and biofuels sustainability; prepared for EC DG ENER. View resource

Edwards R, Hass H, Larivé J-F, Lonza L, Maas H and Rickeard D (2014). Well-to-wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context. European Commission Joint Research Centre Report EUR26236EN v4a, 98p. Data depicted for 2010 technology and vehicles. View resource

European Commission (2009). Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Official journal of the EU, June 5, 2009. (Text with EEA relevance) View resource

Searchinger T et al. (2008). Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land Use Change, Science 319:1238-1240.

Tyner et al. (2010). Land Use Changes and Consequent CO2 Emissions due to US Corn Ethanol Production: A Comprehensive Analysis.

Laborde (2011). Assessing the Land Use Change Consequences of European Biofuel Policies, Final Report, October 2011, IFPRI.

The International Council on Clean Transportation (2012). A model-based quantitative assessment of the carbon benefits of introducing iLUC factors in the European Renewable Energy Directive; Washington DC View resource

Joint Research Centre (2011). Critical issues in estimating ILUC emissions – Outcomes of an expert consultation 9-10 November 2010, Ispra (Italy); Marelli L, Mulligan D, Edwards R; Ispra. View resource

International Food Policy Research Institute, EC Joint Research Centre – Institute for Energy and Transport (2014). Progress in estimates of ILUC with MIRAGE model; Laborde D, Padella M, Edwards R, Marelli L; Report EUR 26106 EN; Luxembourg. View resource

Ernst & Young LLC (2011). Biofuels and Indirect Land Use Change—the case for mitigation. View resource

Fritsche U and Wiegmann K (2011). Indirect Land Use Change and Biofuels; prepared for the EP Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety; IP/A/ENVI/ST/2010-15; Brussels. View resource

Wicke B et al. (2015). ILUC Prevention Strategies for Sustainable Biofuels – Synthesis report from the ILUC Prevention project; Utrecht University; Utrecht. View resource

Greenhouse Gas Emissions – More information fact sheet View resource

Ahlgren S and Di Lucia L (2014). Indirect land use changes of biofuel production – a review of modelling efforts and policy developments in the European Union; in: Biotechnology for Biofuels vol. 7:35. View resource

European Commission (2009). Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Official Journal of the EU, June 5, 2009 L 140 pages 16-62  (Text with EEA relevance) View resource

European Commission (2014). Biofuels sustainability schemes. View resource

Global Bioenergy Partnership. (2014). View resource

 

Frequently Asked Questions

Energy Information Administration (2014). Oil: Crude and Petroleum Products Explained View resource View resource